Brain Clinical Trials
Phase III Intergroup Study of Radiotherapy with Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide versus Radiotherapy with Adjuvant PCV Chemotherapy in Patients with 1p/19q Co-deleted Anaplastic Glioma or Low Grade Glioma
Treatment Agent: Temozolomide, radiotherapy, PCV chemotherapy
Synopsis: The purpose of this study is to see if you have a certain kind of tumor, one that is missing part of both chromosomes 1 and 19. These missing parts of chromosomes are called a “tumor marker” as they make the tumor distinct from other kinds of tumors. This tumor marker is called the 1p/19q co-deletion. Tumors with this 1p/19q co-deletion typically have a more favorable outcome than other types of anaplastic glioma. Standard therapy at this point in time is surgery followed by radiation therapy.
Another purpose of this study is to see if patients survive for a longer period of time without the tumor progressing if thy are treated with a combination of radiotherapy with temozolomide chemotherapy as compared to radiotherapy with PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine, which are the drugs that are used in this chemotherapy treatment, also known as PCV)
- Age ≥ 18 years
- Newly diagnosed and ≤ 3 months from surgical diagnosis
- Histological confirmation of anaplastic glioma (oligodendroglioma, mixed, or astrocytoma [WHO grade III], as determined by pre-registration central pathology review. Note: Mixed gliomas are eligible, regardless of the degree of astrocytic or oligodendrocytic predominance, as long as the tumor is also co-deleted for 1p and 19q.
- Tumor is co-deleted for 1p and 19q.
- Surgery (partial or gross total resection or biopsy) must be performed ≥ 2 weeks prior to registration. Patient must have recovered from the effects of surgery.
- The following laboratory values obtained ≤ 21 days prior to registration.
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1500/mm^3
- Platelet (PLTs) count ≥ 100,000/mm^3
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) > 9.0g/dL
- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
- Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) aspartate transaminase (AST) ≤ 3 x ULN
- Creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN
- Negative serum or urine pregnancy test done ≤ 7 days prior to registration for women of childbearing potential only.
- Willing and able to complete neurocognitive testing without assistance and the Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaires with or without assistance
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1 or 2
- Provide informed written consent.
- Willing to return to enrolling institution for follow-up during the Active Monitoring Phase (ie, active treatment and observation portion of the study)
- Mandatory Tissue Samples for Correlative Research - Patient is willing to provide tissue samples for correlative research purposes
- Pregnant women, nursing women, men or women of childbearing potential who are unwilling to employ adequate contraception during this study and for up to 6 months following the completion of temozolomide treatments.
- Received any prior surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy for any central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm. Note: Patients who have had a prior low grade glioma with or without surgery and who now have anaplastic glioma with no prior radiation or chemotherapy are eligible for the study.
- Co-morbid systemic illnesses or other severe concurrent disease which, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for entry into this study or interfere significantly with the proper assessment of safety and toxicity of the prescribed regimens.
- Concomitant serious immunocompromised status (other than that related to concomitant steroids).
- Patients known to be Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive and currently receiving retroviral therapy. Note: Patients known to be HIV positive, but without clinical evidence of an immunocompromised state, are eligible for the study.
- Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements.
- Receiving any other investigational agent which would be considered as a treatment for the primary neoplasm.
- Other active malignancy within 5 years of registration. Exceptions:
- Non-melanotic skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix. Note: if there is a history of prior malignancy, the patient must not be receiving other specific treatment (other than hormonal therapy) for their cancer.
- History of myocardial infarction ≤ 6 months, or congestive heart failure requiring use of ongoing maintenance therapy for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.
- Recent history of hepatitis infection or treating physician determined that the patient would be at significant risk of reactivation of hepatitis.
Phase III Trial of Observation Versus Irradiation for a Gross Totally Resected Grade II Meningioma
Synopsis: This randomized phase III trial studies how well radiation therapy works compared with observation in treating patients with newly diagnosed grade II meningioma that has been completely removed by surgery. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors.
- PRIOR TO STEP 1 REGISTRATION:
- The patient must have a newly diagnosed unifocal intracranial meningioma, gross totally resected, and histologically confirmed as WHO grade II based upon pathology findings at the enrolling institution; WHO grade will be assigned according to WHO 2016 criteria
- Gross total resection (GTR) will be interpreted as modified Simpson grade 1-3 without gross residual dural-based or extradural tumor; GTR must be confirmed both by modified Simpson grade and by post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings
- Step 1 registration must occur within 180 days of the initial surgery; within this 180 day interval, a second surgery is permitted in order to achieve GTR, but even with a second surgery, step 1 registration must occur within 180 days of the initial resection
- For step 1 registration the operating neurosurgeon must provide the modified Simpson grade
- GTR must be confirmed on post-operative imaging following the most recent surgery; submission of both pre-operative and post-operative MRIs is required for patients; if a second surgery is performed, submission of post-operative MRI is required and pre-operative MRI is required only if obtained; all sequences obtained in the pre- and post-operative MR imaging are to be submitted to National Radiology Group (NRG) Oncology for study registration; imaging subsequent to enrollment must include pre and post gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional spoiled gradient (SPGR), magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE), or turbo field echo (TFE) MRI scan and an axial T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence; to yield acceptable image quality, the gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional SPGR, MP-RAGE, or TFE axial MRI scan should use the smallest possible axial slice thickness not exceeding 1.5 mm; the post-operative MRI must be completed within sufficient time to permit step 1 registration within 180 days of the initial resection; these same conditions apply in the setting of a second surgical procedure, although if a second surgery is completed, step 1 registration must still occur with 180 days of initial surgery; computed tomography (CT) imaging is not required, but may be obtained if desired clinically, for instance to assess calcifications or hyperostosis
- The patient or a legally authorized representative must provide study-specific informed consent prior to study entry
- If the patient is a primary English speaker, the patient must participate in the NCF and patient reported outcomes part of the study; if the patient is a primary French or Spanish speaker, the patient must participate in the patient reported outcomes part of the study
- NOTE: Central pathology review must occur between steps 1 and 2 of registration; once appropriate pathology specimens are received, central pathology review will occur within 15 days, and must confirm WHO grade II meningioma before the patient can proceed to step 2 registration and randomization
- PRIOR TO STEP 2 REGISTRATION:
- Histologically confirmed diagnosis of WHO grade II meningioma confirmed by central pathology review prior to step 2 registration
- History/physical examination, including neurologic examination within 60 days prior to step 2 registration
- Post-operative Zubrod performance status 0-1 within 60 days prior to step 2 registration
- If the patient is a woman is of childbearing potential, a serum pregnancy test, obtained within 14 days prior to step 2 registration, must be negative, and, if randomized to receive radiation therapy, the woman must agree to use contraception
- Optic nerve sheath meningioma, spinal or other extracranial meningioma, multiple meningiomas, hemangiopericytoma
- Definitive evidence of metastatic meningioma
- Prior invasive malignancy (except non-melanomatous skin cancer) unless disease free for a minimum of 3 years (carcinoma in situ of the breast, oral cavity, cervix, melanoma in situ, or other non-invasive malignancies are permissible)
- Previous radiotherapy to the scalp, cranium, brain, or skull base and radiation-induced meningiomas
- Major medical illnesses or psychiatric impairments, which in the investigators opinion, will prevent administration or completion of the protocol therapy and/or preclude informed consent; these include, but are not restricted to:
- Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization at the time of step 2 registration
- Transmural myocardial infarction within the last 6 months prior to step 2 registration
- Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics at the time of step 2 registration
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation or other respiratory illness requiring hospitalization or precluding study therapy at the time of step 2 registration
- Type II neurofibromatosis (NF2)
- Ailments entailing substantial increases in sensitivity and side effect risk from radiation therapy (ataxia telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with CD4 count < 200 cells/microliter); HIV testing is not required for eligibility for this protocol, and known HIV positive patients are eligible, provided they are under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have a CD4 count >= 200 cells/microliter within 30 days prior to step 2 registration
- Inability to undergo MRI with and without contrast (e.g. claustrophobia, non-MRI compatible implant or foreign body, etc) or receive gadolinium; note that patients with severe claustrophobia are permitted on this study if they are willing and able to undergo MRI with adequate sedation or anesthesia
- Pregnancy and/or nursing females
Standard Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Chosen by Cancer Stem Cell Chemosensitivity Testing in the Management of Patients with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
Treatment Agent: N/A
Synopsis: The investigational purpose of this study is to screen chemotherapy drugs currently used for the care of recurrent glioblastoma (a form of brain cancer) and to determine the most effective treatment based on results from a chemosensitivity assay. Chemosensitivity drug assay refers to testing a patient's own cancer cells in the laboratory to drugs that are to be used to treat the patient's cancer.
Following surgery, you will be treated either as per chemotherapy agents chosen by the physician or with chemotherapies as suggested by the results of the chemosensitivity testing.
We would like to determine if patients treated with drugs predicted by the chemosensitivity test have better outcomes than patients treated with drugs chosen by the treating physician.
We expect that you will be in this research study for 3 years. This study is designed to follow you for long-term survival as such – your doctor and his/her staff would like to follow your long-term health status for a period of not more than 36 months, by accessing your hospital records.
This study uses sample specimens obtained by the same surgical procedures that patients have to routinely undergo for the treatment of recurrent brain cancer.
You should discuss with the study staff the risks of being in this study, which are the same as the risks of being treated with standard-of-care chemotherapy and radiation. There may be side effects that we cannot predict. You should tell the research staff about all the medications, vitamins and supplements you take and any medical conditions you have. This may help avoid side effects, interactions and other risks.
There may be no direct benefit to you from participating in this study. However, this study may help doctors learn more about your disease and it is hoped that this information will help in the treatment of future patients with conditions like yours. One possible benefit includes prolonged response to treatment. If you decide not to participate in this research, your other choice may include:
• Comfort Care, which includes pain medication and other support. This aims to maintain your comfort and dignity rather than cure disease. Usually this care can be provided at home
1. Men and Women and members of all ethnic groups who are at least 18 years old at the time of enrollment are eligible for this trial;
2. Informed consent obtained and signed;
3. Willing and able to commit to study procedures including long-term follow-up visit(s);
4. Histopathologically confirmed WHO grade IV recurrent glioblastoma (GBM).
5. In all cases, the diagnosis must be confirmed by a pathologist.
6. Recurrent surgically resectable tumor and/or biopsy;
7. Participants who have undergone surgical resection should have received an MRI or a scan after surgery in order to visualize residual tumor. If not, the operative report must be available;
8. Start of radiotherapy, if indicated, must occur at least 2 weeks after surgery and/or biopsy;
9. Estimated survival of at least 3 months;
10. Hgb > 9 gm; absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 1500/μl; platelets > 100,000; Creatinine < 1.5 times the upper limit of laboratory normal value; Bilirubin < 2 times the upper limit of laboratory normal value; serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) < 3 times the upper limit of laboratory normal value;
11. If indicated radiation therapy and chemotherapy must start within 8 weeks of tumor resection or biopsy.
1. Subjects with newly diagnosed GBM
2. Pregnant women or nursing mothers cannot participate in the study. Women of childbearing age must have a negative pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to study entry. Women of childbearing potential must practice medically approved contraceptive precautions;
3. Abnormal hematological results at inclusion with: Neutrophils < 1,500/mm3; Blood-platelets < 100,000/mm3
4. Severe or chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min);
5. Patient unable to follow procedures, visits, examinations described in the study;
6. Any usual formal indication against imaging examinations (important claustrophobia, pacemaker);