The disks in your spine are donut-shaped structures filled with a jelly-like substance. They are sandwiched in between each of the vertebrae of your spine and act as shock absorbers, making it easy for you to move, twist, bend, and reach without pain.
When you have degenerative disk disease, these small but important structures have started to deteriorate. Sometimes it’s because they’re losing fluid, so they become thinner and less shock-absorbing. Sometimes the disk cracked, bulged, or ruptured — often called a “herniated” disk. Additionally, you may develop bone “spurs” as the vertebrae touch, which put more pressure on the spinal nerve roots.